PyOxidizer Project

Welcome to the unified documentation of the PyOxidizer Project, a collection of libraries and tools attempting to improve ergonomics around packaging and distributing [Python] applications.

The official home of the project is Official documentation lives on (unreleased/latest commit, last release).

The pyoxidizer-users mailing list is a forum for users to discuss all things PyOxidizer.

The creator and maintainer of PyOxidizer is Gregory Szorc.

Multiple Tools Under One Roof

The PyOxidizer Project is comprised of discrete pieces of software developed in the same repository. Major pieces of user-facing software have their own documentation, each described in the following sections.


A Python extension module [implemented in Rust] providing a highly performant alternate module and resource importing mechanism. oxidzed_importer can be used to import Python modules and resources from memory, enabling Python applications to be single file executables.

oxidized_importer is usable as a standalone Python package and can be installed from PyPI.


A Rust library crate to control embedded Python interpreters in Rust applications. The pyembed crate enhances the functionality of embedded Python interpreters by implementing additional features such as integration with oxidized_importer, easy configuration of alternate memory allocators, automatic terminfo database resolution, and more.

pyembed is usable as a standalone Rust crate and can be used by any Rust project embedding Python to abstract over some of the complexities with embedding a Python interpreter.


PyOxidizer is a [Rust] application for streamlining the creation of distributable Python applications.

PyOxidizer is often used to generate binaries embedding a Python interpreter and a custom Python application. However, its configuration files support additional functionality, such as the ability to produce Windows MSI installers, macOS application bundles, and more.

PyOxidizer is primarily made available as the pyoxidizer command line tool. However, it is also usable as a Rust library crate.


PyOxy is an application providing an alternative Python runner. Think of it as an alternative implementation and re-imagination of the ubiquitous python command.

PyOxy enables access to some of the technology built for pyoxidizer (notably oxidized_importer and pyembed) without having to use pyoxidizer.

PyOxy is distributed as a standalone application.


Tugger is an umbrella project for implementing generic application packaging and distribution functionality. It is comprised as several Rust crates, each providing domain-specific functionality including:

  • Debian packaging formats

  • Software licensing

  • Snapcraft packaging

  • Apple code signing

  • Rust toolchain installation

  • Windows installer generation

  • And much more

Tugger defines Starlark primitives for scripting common application packaging and distribution actions.

Tugger is used by PyOxidizer for performing functionality that isn’t specific to Python.

There are aspirations to make Tugger a standalone tool someday. But for now, it is only available as a series of Rust crates.