Controlling Python from Rust Code

Initializing a Python Interpreter

Initializing an embedded Python interpreter in your Rust process is as simple as calling pyembed::MainPythonInterpreter::new(config: OxidizedPythonInterpreterConfig).

The hardest part about this is constructing the pyembed::OxidizedPythonInterpreterConfig instance.

Using a Python Interpreter

Once you’ve constructed a pyembed::MainPythonInterpreter instance, you can obtain a pyo3::Python instance via .with_gil() and then use it:

fn do_it(interpreter: &MainPythonInterpreter) -> {
    interpreter.with_gil(|py| {
         match py.eval("print('hello, world')") {
            Ok(_) => print("python code executed successfully"),
            Err(e) => print("python error: {:?}", e),


Since CPython’s API relies on static variables (sadly), if you really wanted to, you could call out to CPython C APIs directly (probably via the bindings in the pyo3 crate) and they would interact with the interpreter started by the pyembed crate. This is all unsafe, of course, so tread at your own peril.

Finalizing the Interpreter

pyembed::MainPythonInterpreter implements Drop and it will call Py_FinalizeEx() when called. So to terminate the Python interpreter, simply have the MainPythonInterpreter instance go out of scope or drop it explicitly.

A Note on the pyembed APIs

The pyembed crate is highly tailored towards PyOxidizer’s default use cases and the APIs are not considered extremely well polished.

While the functionality should work, the ergonomics may not be great.

It is a goal of the PyOxidizer project to support Rust programmers who want to embed Python in Rust applications. So contributions to improve the quality of the pyembed crate will likely be greatly appreciated!